Under Article 50, following notification by a Member State of its intention to leave the EU, a two-year waiting period (renewable by mutual agreement) begins during which the withdrawing State and the other Member States negotiate an agreement on the conditions for withdrawal. The Withdrawal Agreement sets out the terms negotiated between the UK and the EU27 between June 2017 and October 2019 after the UK announced its intention to withdraw from the EU`s political institutions on 29 March 2017. The UK Parliament must conduct two approval procedures before the UK can ratify the Withdrawal Agreement. The EU Withdrawal Act 2018 and the Constitutional Reform and Governance Act 2010 (CRAG) are procedural obstacles to the UK`s ability to ratify the negotiations. The Withdrawal Act also provides for a parliamentary process in the event that an agreement is rejected by the House of Commons or if a negotiated agreement is never presented to it. On 28 October 2019, the EU granted the requested extension of the withdrawal period and the following day, the Early Parliamentary Elections Act 2019 was passed by the House of Commons and received Royal Assent on 31 October 2019. Parliament was dissolved on 6 November 2019 and the MCA fell after making no further progress since its second reading. The Withdrawal Agreement has therefore not been ratified by either the UK or the EU. If the Withdrawal Agreement is approved, an EU law (Withdrawal Agreement) will be introduced to transpose the Withdrawal Agreement into UK law.
Following the library`s backgrounder, The User`s Guide to the Meaningful Vote, this document provides an updated overview of the national constitutional requirements for ratifying the Withdrawal Agreement. The Gibraltar Protocol shall apply until the end of the transitional period, with the exception of the provisions relating to citizens` rights, which shall continue thereafter. The Protocol regulates the preparation of the application of the part of citizens` rights of the Withdrawal Agreement and allows the application of Union law at Gibraltar airport if the United Kingdom and Spain reach an agreement on this matter; establishes cooperation between Spain and the United Kingdom in tax, environmental protection and fisheries matters, as well as in police and customs matters. The Memoranda of Understanding between the United Kingdom and Spain facilitate cooperation at operational level between the competent authorities of Gibraltar and Spain, including through the establishment of joint committees on citizens` rights, the environment, police, customs and tobacco. During the transition period, the UK was unable to conclude its own trade agreements with third countries (although it was able to negotiate and ratify them until they entered into force during the transition period). However, this did not mean that the UK would automatically continue to benefit from eu trade agreements with third countries. The British Parliament approved the draft agreement at the time by passing the European Union (Withdrawal Agreement) Act 2020 on 23 January 2020. Following the signing of the agreement, the United Kingdom Government adopted a decision on 29 September. In January 2020, the instrument of ratification of the UK agreement was published and deposited.   The agreement was ratified by the Council of the European Union on 30 January 2020, after obtaining the consent of the European Parliament on 29 January 2020. The withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the Union entered into force on 31 January 2020 at 11 .m GMT, and on that date the Withdrawal Agreement under Article 185 entered into force. On October 22, 2019, the House of Commons voted by 329 votes to 299 to give a second reading to the revised withdrawal agreement (negotiated by Boris Johnson earlier this month), but when the accelerated timetable he proposed did not receive the necessary parliamentary support, Johnson announced that the legislation would be suspended.
  The agreement also provides for a transitional period, which lasts until 31 December 2020 and can be extended once by mutual agreement. During the transition period, EU law will continue to apply to the UK (including participation in the European Economic Area, the Single Market and the Customs Union) and the UK will continue to contribute to the EU budget, but the UK will not be represented in EU decision-making bodies. The transition period will give businesses time to adjust to the new situation and give THE UK and EU governments time to negotiate a new EU-UK trade deal.   The 599-page Withdrawal Agreement covers the following main areas Both the draft Withdrawal Agreement and the Political Declaration have potentially important implications for the CONSTITUTION of the United Kingdom. Some constitutional issues that may arise in any bill implementing the Withdrawal Agreement are: The Declaration on the Future Relationship between the European Union and the United Kingdom, also known as the Political Declaration, is a non-binding declaration that, together with the binding and broader Withdrawal Agreement in the context of the United Kingdom`s withdrawal from the European Union (EU), has been negotiated and signed. colloquially known as Brexit, and the expected end of the transition period. On 13 November 2018, the EU decided that “decisive progress” had been made in the Brexit negotiations, and on 14 November 2018. In November, the European Commission and the UK government published a draft withdrawal agreement as well as three protocols (across the border between Ireland and Northern Ireland, the UK Sovereign Base Areas in Cyprus and Gibraltar) and nine annexes. The text of the negotiated Withdrawal Agreement, as well as the Political Declaration on the Framework for the Future Relationship between the EU and the UK, were endorsed by EU leaders at a specially convened European Council meeting on 25 November 2018. Provisions on bilateral cooperation in the fields of citizens` rights, certain products, the environment, police and customs, as well as a bilateral agreement on taxation and the protection of financial interests. The Withdrawal Agreement also contains provisions allowing the United Kingdom to let the United Kingdom link the Statute of the European Schools to the United Kingdom by the Convention and the accompanying rules for accredited European Schools until the end of the last academic year of the transition period, i.e.
until the end of the 2020-2021 spring semester.  The current EU VAT regime applies to goods dispatched or transported from the UK to an EU Member State or vice versa if the shipment or transport started before the end of the transition period and ended thereafter. Unless the Future Relationship Agreement provides otherwise, goods exported from the UK to the EU and vice versa after the end of the transition will incur VAT and customs formalities. The EU excise duty regime on fuels, alcohol and tobacco products contains similar provisions. After the transition, exports of excise goods from the UK to the EU are subject to customs formalities before they can be transported within the EU. To meet these requirements, the United Kingdom may have access to relevant networks and information systems and databases. The Brexit Withdrawal Agreement, officially an agreement on the withdrawal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland from the European Union and the European Atomic Energy Community, is a treaty between the European Union (EU), Euratom and the United Kingdom (UK), signed on 24 January 2020, which sets out the conditions for the United Kingdom`s withdrawal from the EU and Euratom. The text of the treaty was published on 17 September. October 2019, and is a renegotiated version of an agreement published six months earlier. The previous version of the Withdrawal Agreement was rejected three times by the House of Commons, leading Queen Elizabeth II to accept Theresa May`s resignation as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and to appoint Boris Johnson as the new Prime Minister on 24 July 2019.
Immediately after the announcement of a revised withdrawal agreement on 17 October 2019, Labour, the Liberal Democrats and the DUP declared that they could not support the new agreement.  If the financial penalty has not been paid within one month or if the panel`s decision is still not complied with after six months, the Withdrawal Agreement allows the complainant to take proportionate measures to suspend certain elements of the application of the Withdrawal Agreement itself, with the exception of provisions relating to citizens` rights or parts of other agreements between the EU and the United Kingdom (Article 178, paragraph (2). Such a suspension lasts only until compliance is restored and is subject to review by the arbitration panel (Article 178(3) and (5), Article 179). Negotiations on the withdrawal of the United Kingdom took place in two tranches. A first draft of the withdrawal agreement was finalised by Theresa May`s government in November 2018. Background information is available at: After the entry into force of the MCA, the Withdrawal Agreement must also be ratified by the European Parliament. The Withdrawal Agreement between the European Union and the United Kingdom sets out the conditions for an orderly withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the EU in accordance with Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union. The inclusion of the deal in the House of Commons ranged from cold to hostile and the vote was delayed by more than a month. Prime Minister May won a no-confidence motion against her own party, but the EU refused to accept further changes. The WAB transposes Boris Johnson`s withdrawal agreement, which is a draft international treaty, into British law and gives the government permission to ratify it. The November 2018 version of the Withdrawal Agreement provided for a transition period (called by the UK government implementation period) from 31 March 2019, the initial date on which the UK was to leave the EU, until 31 December 2020.